Sunday, April 7, 2019
Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1 Study Guide Essay Example for Free
pulp and Physiology Ch. 1 Study Guide EssayAnatomy the study of the form or structure and administration of ashes move and their relationships Physiology the study of the forges of the body parts or structures and their relationships in avering life processes. Levels of Structural presidential term The valet de chambre body consists of levels of morphological organization that are associated with one another. There are six levels of structural organizationI. chemical level It is the bare(a)st level and it includes all of the chemical substances es moveial for maintaining life. These substances are made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Atoms combine to form molecules, which may be simple or complex. Different types of molecules combine to form oranelles (little variety meat). Organelles are particular(prenominal) structures that carry out particular proposition functions. 2. electric cellula r level The cell is the basic unit of structure and function and of life. Cells vary in size, shape, and function and may contain many types of organelles.3. meander level Tissues are groups of similar cells that perform a specific function.There are four major types of tissues in the human bodya. epithelial tissue It is gear up lining body cavities and covers the come on of the body. It functions in protection, secretion, and excretion.b. connective tissue It is found on the surfaces of and in organs and tissues and functions in protection, support, and attaching organs and tissues to each other and to the walls of body cavities.c. ponderosity tissue It functions in the movement of body parts and organs, and in the movement of substances end-to-end the body.There are three major types of muscle tissue(1)skeletal muscle It is found attached to andcovering bones and it functions in bodymovement.(2)cardiac muscle It is located in the heartwall and functions in the contract ion andrelaxation of the heart as it beats.(3) savorless muscle It is located in the walls of internal or visceral organs and it functions in moving substances throughout the body. d. nervous tissue It is located in the mavin and spinal cord, and extends to various tissues and organs. It functions in transmitting electric or nerve impulses from the external and internal environments to the brain and spinal cord where it is interpreted and a solution occurs.4. organ level Organs are groups of two or more types oftissue working unitedly to perform a specific function.5. organ system level sTstems are groups of organsthat work intimately together to perform a common function.There are eleven organ systems in the human body6. organismal level It is the highest level of structuralorganization and it consists of groups of organ systems working together to maintain body structure and function. Organ systems work together to maintain an internal environment that is fairly constant, stable, or balanced. This is referred to as homeostasis (to stay the same). Changes do occur, but within very narrow ranges or limits.HomeostasisBody parts or structures function efficiently in maintaining metabolic processes and when the survival needs are within received limits or optimum levels.The survival needs include water, oxyqen, nutrients, an appropriate bod temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Water is needful for chemical reactions, excretion, and secretion.Oxyqen is required for many of the metabolic reactions that break down nutrients and provide energy. Nutrients provide energy for cells and cell processes. Bod temperature must be maintained within a certain range for chemical reactions and cell processes to perform efficiently. If the body temperature falls too low or increases too high, chemical reactions will slake down or may stop. Atmospheric pressure is the force of air on the body surface by the weight of air. It is important in breathing and in the excha nge of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. To maintain homeostasis there are control mechanisms. Control mechanisms consist of three partsi. receptor It responds to sensory(prenominal) stimuli from the internal and external environments. The information is sent along afferent pathways to the control center.2. control center It consists of the brain and spinal cord which interpret and analyze the information and determine an appropriate response. Information is then sent along efferent pathways to the effector.3. effector It consists of tissues, organs, or glands that perform a motor response to the original stimulus that was received by the receptor. The response involves a feedback mechanism. If the response slows down or inhibit the stimulus it is a neqative feedback mechanism. If the response speeds up or enhances the stimulus, it is a positive feedback mechanism.Most control mechanisms for homeostasis in the human body are negative feedback mechanisms.